A New Age, the Fourth Industrial Revolution
A New Age, the Fourth Industrial Revolution
  • 김선화 기자
  • 승인 2017.10.30 09:00
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"We stand on the brink of a technological revolution that will fundamentally alter the way we live, work, and relate to one another. In its scale, scope, and complexity, the transformation will be unlike anything humankind has experienced before."

This statement was issued by the World Economic Forum WEF founder Klaus Schwab in 2016. The WEF is an International Civilian Convention and is also called the Davos Forum because it is held in Davos, Switzerland, every year between January and February since 1971. Klause made the claim of coming of the fourth industrial revolution in the ‘industry 4.0 policy’ in Germany back in 2012. The industry 4.0 policy addresses a high-tech strategy for a 2020 platform to bring about manufacturing innovation. Industry 4.0 means "automate fully." It is the fourth generation industrial production system which forges complete automated manufacturing systems of manufacturing that can exchange information between production equipment and production through IoT, Internet of Things. Industry 4.0 emphasizes CPS, (Cyber-Physical System) which connects the cyber world to the real world. It works to connect physical systems to computer and network systems. That is to say the cyber system controls factories automatically and intelligently.

The fourth industrial revolution can be defined as follows: the fourth industrial revolution is the term which refers to the next generation revolution which improves industrial competitiveness by blending industry and ICT : IT - Information Technology + C - Communication. It is also called AMI, (Advanced Manufacturing Infrastructure), in the United States, and "Industry 4.0" in Germany and China.

The first industrial revolution was mechanical and produced the steam engine, the second industrial revolution was electrical and developed mass through use of electricity and automation, and the third industrial revolution developed computers and the internet which created the information era. When the fourth industrial revolution arrives, it is expected that advances in IoT (Internet of Things) will connect to all objects. It is also expected that advances in artificial intelligence will make production of facilities work intelligently depending on the situation. Many people confuse the definition of artificial intelligence and robots. Robots accent an aspect of hardware while artificial intelligence accents an aspect of software.

Manufacturing, information and communication technology will constitute the fourth industrial revolution. ICT(Information and communication technology) is the future industry which will connect various IT production and services with each other so they can exchange information.
Notable cases among others are; Big Data, Cloud, VR (Virtual Reality), 5G (5th Generation Mobile Communication Systems), Internet of Things, Ultra High Definition TV, AI (Artificial Intelligence), e-learning, and self-driving cars. These products do not move individually but they create completed forms to exchange information through communication services which will be able to interact with each other.

What will the future be like when the fourth industrial revolution arrives? - Smart homes are predicted to be established through the Internet of Things. In the morning, music will be playing which residents like, alarms will be activated at the appointed time and programs will recommend clothes to wear due to a person's schedule and the weather outside. You can see what you will look like with different clothes options by looking at a hologram of yourself before you try the clothes on. You will not need to acquire a driver license because take a car Autonomous Driving will be.

A problem of the fourth industrial revolution - AI is predicted to be one of biggest problems. The ability of AI is divided into three parts. 1. ANI, Artificial Narrow Intelligence: It is the artificial intelligence which is brilliant in one direction. It quickly and accurately calculates and is already used for chess and Othello games. No one can win ANI. It is also used in Alphago. 2. AGI, Artificial General Intelligence: This is an artificial intelligence that is human-like. Artificial General Intelligence can compete in many ways with humans. In other words, they can intellectually do everything that humans can do. 3. ASI, Artificial Super Intelligence: Nick Bostrom, a famous Oxford philosopher who works with AI, defines ASI as the smartest intelligence in all famous fields including the creation of scientific techniques and general knowledge. We will not be able to distinguish them from human beings when they become embedded in humanoids.

Many people worry that AI will surpass human beings, and AI development poses many ethical problems. Also, there are other concerns that people's jobs will be decreased because of robots and AI. However, recently experts have been saying that AI robots will not be a threat, but helpful tools. AI will be able to replace 3D jobs (difficult, dangerous, and dirty jobs) which people avoid. And robots are machines, so when they break down, someone will be needed to fix them. As robot production increases, jobs which require human work will also increase. One example of this is when recently Amazon has opened 1200 jobs in Warrington, England, despite the introduction of advanced robots. AI may be scary but all hope should not be lost. In the future, they will be our friends.

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